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Abramowitz M, Stegun I A, eds.(1972) Handbook of Mathematical Functions With Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables. 10th printing, US National Bureau of Standards, Applied Mathematics Series — 55

Abdi H (2007) The Kendall Rank Correlation Coefficient. in Salkind N, ed.(2007) Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA

Adler H L, Roessler E B (1960) Introduction to Probability and Statistics. W H Freeman & Co, San Francisco

Aitkin M, Anderson D, Francis B, Hinde J (1989) Statistical Modelling in GLIM, Oxford Science Publications, Oxford, UK

Altman D G (1982) How Large a Sample? in Gore S M, Altman D G eds. Statistics in Practice. BMA, London

Altman D G, Bland J M (1991) Improving Doctors' Understanding of Statistics. J of the Royal Stat. Soc., A, 154(2), 223-267

Altman M, Gill J, McDonald M P (2004) Numerical Issues in Statistical Computing for the Social Scientist. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics, J Wiley & Sons, NJ

Altman M, McDonald M P (2002) Choosing Reliable Statistical Software. Political Science & Politics, 34(3), 681-687

Anderson G F, Hussey P S (2000) Multinational Comparison of Health Systems Data, 2000. Johns Hopkins University/The Commonwealth Fund, October 2000

Anscombe F J (1948) The transformation of Poisson, binomial and negative-binomial data. Biometrika, 35, 246-254

Anscombe F J (1950) Sampling Theory of the Negative Binomial and Logarithmic Series Distributions. Biometrika, 37(3/4), 358-382

Anselin L (1988) Spatial econometrics: Methods and models. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, NL

Anselin L (2002) Under the hood: Issues in the specification and interpretation of spatial regression models. Agricultural Economics, 17(3), 247-67

Anselin L, Bera A (1998) Spatial dependence in linear regression models with an introduction to spatial econometrics. in Ullah A, Giles D (eds.) Handbook of applied economic statistics. Marcel Dekker, New York, 237-89

Apostol T M (1974) Mathematical Analysis. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.

Baddeley A, Turner R, Moller J, Hazelton M (2005) Residual analysis for spatial point processes. J of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 67, 617–666

Bailey T C, Gatrell A C (1995) Interactive spatial data analysis. Longman, Harlow, UK

Bartlett M S (1937) Properties of sufficiency and statistical tests. Proc of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 160, 268–282

Bartlett M S (1941) The statistical significance of canonical correlations. Biometrica, 32, 29-38

Bartlett J E II, Kotrlik J W, Higgins C (2001) Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size for survey research. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 19(1) 43-50

Bates D M, Watts D G (1988) Nonlinear Regression Analysis and its Applications. John Wiley and Sons, New York

Batty M, Jiang B, Thurstain-Goodwin M (1998) Local movement: agent-based models of pedestrian movement, Working Paper 4, CASA, UCL London

Belisle C J P (1992) Convergence theorems for a class of simulated annealing algorithms on Rd. J Applied Probability, 29, 885–895

Berens P, Velasco M J (2009) MATLab file exchange: CircStats: A circular statistics toolbox

Bergmann R, Ludbrook J, Spooren W P J M (2000) Different Outcomes of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test from Different Statistics Packages. The American Statistician, 54(1), 72-77

Berger J (2006) The case for objective Bayesian analysis. Bayesian Analysis, 1(3), 385-402

Berke O (2004) Exploratory disease mapping: kriging the spatial risk function from regional count data. Intl. J of Health Geographics, 3(18), 1-11

Besag J, Kooperberg C L (1995) On conditional and intrinsic autoregressions. Biometrika, 82, 733-46

Besag J, York J, Mollie A (1991) Bayesian image restoration, with two applications in spatial statistics. Annals of the Institute of Statistical Maths, 43, 1-59

Best D J, Roberts D E (1975) Algorithm AS 89: The upper tail probabilities of Spearman's rho. Applied Statistics, 24, 377–379

Best D J, Gipps P G (1974) Algorithm AS 71, Upper tail probabilities of Kendall's tau. Applied Statistics, 23, 98-100

Beyer W H (1966) Handbook of Tables for Probability and Statistics. CRC Press, Cleveland, OH

Blastland M, Dilnot A (2008) The Tiger That Isn't. Profile Books, London

Bloomfield P (1976) Fourier Analysis of Time Series: An Introduction. Wiley

Borenstein M, Hedges L V, Higgins J P T ,Rothstein  H R (2009) Introduction to Meta Analysis. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK

Bowman A W, Azzalini A (1997) Applied smoothing techniques for data analysis: The kernel approach with S-Plus illustrations. Oxford Statistical Science Series, Oxford University Press, Oxford

Box G E P, Cox D R (1964) An analysis of transformations. J of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 26(2), 211–252

Box G E P,Hunter J S, Hunter W G (1978) Statistics for Experimenters: An Introduction to Design, Data Analysis and Model Building. J Wiley & Sons, New York. J Wiley & Sons, New York. The second, extended edition was published in 2005

Box G E P, Jenkins G M (1968). Some recent advances in forecasting and control. Applied Statistics, 17(2), 91-109

Box G E P, Jenkins G M, Reinsel G C (1994). Time Series Analysis, Forecasting and Control. 3rd ed. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Bozdogan H (1987) Model Selection and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC): The General Theory and Its Analytical Extensions. Psychometrika, 52, 345-370

Bradford Hill A (1937) Principles of Medical Statistics. The Lancet, London (issued in various editions until 1971. Then republished as "A Short Textbook of Medical Statistics" in 1977

Bradford Hill A (1965) The Environment and Disease: Association or Causation? Proc. of the Royal Soc. of Medicine, 58, 295-300. A copy of this article is reproduced on Tufte's website:

Brockwell P J, Davis R A (1991) Time Series: Theory and Methods. 2nd ed., Springer. New York

Brogan D J (1998) Pitfalls of Using Standard Statistical Software Packages for Sample Survey Data. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics. J Wiley, New York

Brooks S P (1998) Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method and Its Application. J of the Royal Statistical Society. Series D (The Statistician), 47(1), 69-100

Brown L D, Cai T T, DasGupta A (2001) Interval estimation for a Binomial proportion. Statistical Science, 16(2), 101-117

Brown M B, Forsythe A B (1974) Robust Tests for Equality of Variances. J of the American Statistical Association, 69, 364–367

Brunk H D (1960) An Introduction to Mathematical Statistics. Blaisdell Publishing, Waltham, Mass.

Burrough P A, McDonnell R A (1998) Principles of Geographical Information Systems. Appendix 3. Oxford University Press, Oxford

Cameron A, Trivedi P (1998) Regression analysis of count data. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

Campbell M J, Machin D, Walters S J (2007) Medical Statistics : A Textbook for the Health Sciences. 4th Ed., John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester

Carley S, Dosman S, Jones S R,Harrison M (2003) Simple nomograms to calculate sample size in diagnostic studies. Emerg. Med. J (EMJ), 22, 180-181

Chatfield C (1975) The Analysis of Times Series: Theory and Practice. Chapman and Hall, London. Datasets for this book (revised editions, 6th ed. 2003) are available from StatLib

Chernick M R (2008) Bootstrap Methods: A Guide for Practitioners and Researchers. 2nd ed., J Wiley, Hoboken, NJ

Chib S, Greenberg E (1995) Understanding the Metropolis-Hastings Algorithm. The American Statistician, 49(4), 327-335

Chou Y, Polansky A M, Mason R L (1998) Transforming Nonnormal Data to Normality in Statistical Process Control. J of Quality Technology, 30, 133-141

Clark D (1975) Understanding Canonical Correlation. CATMOG 3. Available from:

Cleveland W S, Devlin S J (1988) Locally-Weighted Regression: An Approach to Regression Analysis by Local Fitting. J of the American Statistical Association, 83(403), 596–610

Cliff A, Ord J (1973) Spatial autocorrelation. Pion, London

Clifton M, Paul G, Kwok N, Liu D, Wang D-L (2008) Evaluating Performance of Multiple RRTs. IEEE conference on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Application

Cochran W G (1977) Sampling Techniques. 3rd ed., J Wiley, New York

Collins L (1975) An Introduction to Markov Chains. CATMOG 1. Available from:

Conover W J (1999) Practical Nonparametric Statistics. 3rd ed., J Wiley & Sons, New York

Conover W J, Johnson M E, Johnson M M (1981) A comparative study of tests for homogeneity of variances, with applications to the outer continental shelf bidding data. Technometrics, 23, 351–361

Cornell J A (2002) Experiments with Mixtures: Designs, Models and the Analysis of Mixture Data. 3rd edition, J Wiley & Sons, New York

Crawley M J (2007, 2012) The R Book. J Wiley & Son, Chichester, UK

Cressie N A C (1991) Statistics for spatial data. John Wiley, New York (Revised edition 1993)

Cressie N A C, Chan N H (1989) Spatial modeling of regional variables. J Amer. Stat. Assoc., 84, 393-401

Crow E L, Davis F A, Maxfield M W (1960) Statistics Manual. Dover Publications, New York. Reprinted in 2003 and still available

Dacey M (1968) A review of measures of contiguity for two and k-color maps. pp 479-95 in Berry B J L, Marble D F eds. Spatial Analysis. Prentice Hall, New Jersey

David H A, Edwards A W F eds. (2001) The random walk and its fractal limiting form — comments on Venn, 1888. in Annotated Readings in the History of Statistics. Springer. New York

Davies O L ed. (1961) Statistical Methods in Research and Production. 3rd ed., Oliver & Boyd, London

Davis T P (2006) Science, engineering, and statistics. Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry, 22, 401-430

Davis T P (2010) Statistical Engineering. Presentation to the Royal Stat. Soc. 2010 Annual Conference

De Moivre A (1713)  The Doctrine of Chance: A method of calculating the probabilities of events in play; Available as a freely downloadable PDF from

de Smith M J (2004) Distance transforms as a new tool in spatial analysis, urban planning and GIS, Environment & Planning B, 31(1), 85-104

de Smith M J, Goodchild M F, Longley P A (2018) Geospatial Analysis: A Comprehensive Guide to Principles, Techniques and Software Tools. 6th edition, The Winchelsea Press, UK. Available from:

Deutsch C V, Journel A G (1992, 1998) GSLIB geostatistical software library and user’s guide. Oxford University Press, New York

Diggle P J (1990) A point process modeling approach to raised incidence of a rare phenomenon in the vicinity of a pre-specified point. J Royal Stat. Soc., A, 153, 349-62

Diggle P J (1990) Time Series: A Biostatistical Introduction. Oxford University Press, Datasets for this book are available from StatLib

Dodge Y (2002) The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics. Springer, New York

Draper G, Vincent T, Kroll M E, Swanson J (2005) Childhood cancer in relation to distance from high voltage power lines in England and Wales: a case-control study. British Medical J, 330, 4 June 2005, 1-5

Dupont W D, Plummer W D (1990) Power and sample size calculations. Controlled Clinical Trials, 11,116-128

Efron B (1979) Bootstrap methods: another look at the jackknife. Ann. Statist. 7, 1-26

Efron B (1986) Why Isn't Everyone a Bayesian? The American Statistician, 40(1),1

Efron B (1982) The Jackknife, the Bootstrap and other resampling plans. Philadelphia: SIAM

Efron B, Tibshirani R J (1993) An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Chapman and Hall, New York

Efron B, Tibshirani R J (1997) Improvements on cross-validation: The .632+ bootstrap method. J. American Stat. Assoc., 92, 548-560

Ehrenberg A S C (1959) The Pattern of Consumer Purchases. Applied Statistics, 8(1), 26-41

Ercan I, Berna Y, Yang Y, Ozkaya G, Cangur S, Ediz B , Kan I (2007) Misuage of Statistics in Medical research. Eur. J of Gen. Med., 4(3), 128-134

Evans A S (1976) Causation and Disease: The Henle-Koch Postulates Revisited. Yale J Biol Med., 49(2), 175-195

Evans S (1988) The statistical aspects of a study to help in the design of a multi-lingual keyboard. MSc. thesis, University of Kent, UK

Farnum N R (1996) Using Johnson Curves to Describe Non-Normal Process Data. Quality Engineering. 9,2, 329-336

Feller W (1950) An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications. Vols 1 and 2. J Wiley & Sons

Ferris C D, Grubbs F E, Weaver C L (1946) Operating Characteristics for the Common Statistical Tests of Significance. Annals of Mathematical Stats, 17(2), 178-197

Field A (2009) Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. 3rd ed., Sage Publications

Fisher R A (1915) Frequency distribution of the values of the correlation coefficient in samples from an indefinitely large population. Biometrika, 10(4), 507–521

Fisher R A (1935) The Design of Experiments. Oliver & Boyd, London

Fisher N I (1993) Statistical analysis of circular data. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Fisher W D (1958) On grouping for maximal homogeneity. J of the American Statistical Association, 53, 789-98

Fotheringham A S, Brunsdon C, Charlton M (2002) Geographically Weighted Regression: The analysis of spatially varying relationships. Wiley, New York

Fotheringham A S, Charlton M, Brunsdon C, Nakaya T (2005) Model selection issues in Geographically Weighted Regression. Proc., Geocomputation 2005 Conference, Ann Arbor, Mi. USA

Freeman M F, Tukey J W (1950) Transformations related to the angular and the square root. Ann. Math. Statist., 21, 607-11

Friendly M (2000) Visualizing Categorical Data. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.

Gaile G L, Burt J E (1980) Directional Statistics. CATMOG 25. Obtainable from:

Gelfand A E, Diggle P J, Fuentes M, Guttorp P eds. (2010) Handbook of Spatial Statistics. Chapman Hall/CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida

Getis A D, Griffith D A (2002) Comparative spatial filtering in regression analysis. Geog. Anal., 34, 130-40

Getis A D, Ord J K (1992) The analysis of spatial association using distance statistics. Geog. Anal., 24, 189-206

Getis A D, Ord J K (1995) Local spatial autocorrelation statistics: Distributional issues and an application. Geog. Anal., 27, 287-306

Gladwell M (2008) Outliers — the story of success. Alan Lane/Penguin, London

Geman S, Geman D (1984) Stochastic relaxation, Gibbs distributions and the Bayesian restoration of images. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., 6, 721-741

Gilks W R, Richardson S, Spiegelhalter D J (1996) Markov Chain Monte Carlo in Practice. Chapman & Hall/CRC Press

Greenland S, Pearl J, Robins J M (1999) Causal Diagrams for Epidemiologic Research, Epidemiology,10(1), 37-48

Goldacre B (2009) Bad Science. Harper Perennial. ISBN: 978-0007284870

Goldacre B (2012) Bad Pharma: How drug companies mislead doctors and harm patients. Fourth Estate. ISBN:978-0007350742

Gonik L, Smith W (1993) Cartoon Guide to Statistics. Harper Collins, New York

Goovaerts P (1997) Geostatistics for natural resources evaluation. Oxford University Press, New York

Gosset W S (1908) On the probable error of the mean. Biometrika, 6, 1-25.

Gould W, Pitblado J, Sribney W (2005) Maximum Likelihood Estimation with Stata. Stata Press; 3rd ed

Greenland S, Pearl J, Robins J M (1999) Causal Diagrams for Epidemiologic Research, Epidemiology,10(1), 37-48

Griffith D A (2005) A comparison of six analytical disease mapping techniques as applied to West Nile Virus in the coterminous United States, Intl. J of Health Geographics, 4:18

Grinstead C M, Snell J L (1997) Introduction to Probability, 2nd ed. AMS, 1997

Grunwald P (2008) MDL — Tutorial Video lecture. Available from

Haining R (2003) Spatial data analysis — theory and practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

Halley E (1693) An Estimate of the Degrees of Mortality of Mankind. Phil. Trans. of the Royal Society, January 1692/3, p.596-610; Available online at Also available in Newman J R (1960) The World of Mathematics. Vol 3, Part VIII Statistics and the Design of Experiments, pp1436-1447. Oliver & Boyd, London

Hanan E J (1960) Time Series Analysis. Methuen, London

Hansen M H, Yu B (2001) Model Selection and the Principle of Minimum Description Length.  J of the American Statistical Association, 96, 454, 746-774

Hastie T J, Tibshirani R J (1990) Generalized Additive Models. Chapman and Hall, New York

Hastings W K (1970) Monte Carlo Sampling Methods Using Markov Chains and Their Applications. Biometrika, 57(1), 97-109

Hedayat A S,Sinha B K (1991) Design and inference in finite population sampling. John Wiley & Sons, New York

Hill A B — see Bradford Hill

Hoel P G (1947) An Introduction to Mathematical Statistics. J Wiley & Sons, New York

Hotelling H (1936) Relations between two sets of variables. Biometrika, 28, 321–327

Hubbard R, Bayarri M J (2003) P Values are not Error Probabilities. PDF obtainable from:

Huff D (1954) How to Lie with Statistics. W W Norton & Co, New York

Hunter J S (1986) The exponentially weighted moving average. J of Quality Technology, 18, 203-210

Irwin J O (1937) The frequency distribution of the difference between two independent variates following the same Poisson distribution.  J of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 100, 415-416

Irwin J O (1954) A distribution arising from the study of infectious diseases. Biometrika, 41, 266-268

Izquierdo L R, Izquierdo S S, Galán J M, Santos J I (2009) Techniques to Understand Computer Simulations: Markov Chain Analysis. J of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 12,1/6

Jha P, Jacob B, Gajalakshmi V et al. (2008) A nationally representative case-control study of smoking and death in India. N Engl J Med; 358:1137-1147

Jammalamadaka S R, SenGupta A (2001) Topics in Circular Statistics. World Scientific Press, Singapore

Jarque C M, Bera A K (1987) A test for normality of observations and regression residuals. Intl Statistical Review,  55(2), 163–172

Jenks G F, Caspall F C (1971) Error on choroplethic maps: Definition, measurement, reduction. Annals of American Geographers, 61, 217-44

John J H, Ziebland S, Yudkin P L, Roe L S, Neil H A W for the Oxford Fruit and Vegetable Study Group (2002) A randomised controlled trial of a primary care intervention to increase fruit and vegetable consumption: effects on plasma antioxidant concentrations and blood pressure. Lancet ; 359:1969-74

Johnson N L (1949) Systems of frequency curves generated by methods of translation. Biometrika, 36, 149-176

Johnson N L, Kotz S (1969) Discrete distributions. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston/ J Wiley & Sons, New York. Note that a 3rd edition of this work, with revisions and extensions, is published by J Wiley & Sons (2005) with the additional authorship of Adrienne Kemp of the University of St Andrews.

Johnson N L, Kotz S (1970) Continuous Univariate Distributions — 1 & 2. Houghton Mifflin/John Wiley & Sons, New York

Johnson N L, Kotz S (1972) Continuous Multivariate Distributions. Houghton Mifflin/John Wiley & Sons, New York

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Joyce J (2003) Bayes' Theorem. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. available from:

Kabos S, Csillag F (2002) The analysis of spatial association on a regular lattice by join-count statistics without the assumption of first-order homogeneity. Computers & Geosciences, 28, 901-910

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Kendall M G, Kendall S F H, Babington-Smith B (1939) The distribution of Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation in a universe in which all rankings occur an equal number of times. Biometrika, 30, 251-273

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Kennedy T (2002) A faster implementation of the pivot algorithm for self-avoiding walks. J Stat. Phys., 106, 407-429; see the code and set of images provided by Kennedy at:

King G, Rosen O, Tanner M A (2004) Ecological inference: New methodological strategies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK

Kinmonth A L, Wareham N J, Hardeman W, Sutton S, Prevost A T, Fanshawe T et al. (2008) Efficacy of a theory-based behavioural intervention to increase physical activity in an at-risk group in primary care (ProActive UK): a randomised trial.  Lancet ; 371 (9606):41-48

Kizilersü A, Kreer M, and Thomas A W (2018) The Weibull Distribution. Significance, Royal Stat. Soc., April 2018 pp.10-11

Kotz S, Balakrishnan N, Johnson N L (2000) Continuous multivariate distributions I: Models and Applications. 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York

Kotz S, Johnson L (eds.) (1988) Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences. Vols 1-9, J Wiley & Sons, New York. A 2nd edition with almost 10,000 pages was published with Kotz as the Editor-in-Chief, in 2006

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Li L, Zhu L, Sui D Z (2007) A GIS-based Bayesian approach for analyzing spatio-temporal patterns of intra-city motor vehicle crashs. J of Transport Geog., 15, 274-285

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Mackay R J, Oldford R W (2002) Scientific method, Statistical method and the Speed of Light, Working Paper 2002-02, Dept of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo, Canada. An excellent paper that provides an insight into Michelson’s 1879 experiment and explanation of the role and method of statistics in the larger context of science

Madras N, Slade G (1993) The Self-avoiding Walk. Birkhäuser, Boston

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Mardia K V, Jupp P E (1999) Directional statistics. 2nd ed., John Wiley, Chichester

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Nakaya T, Fotheringham A S, Brunsdon C, Charlton M (2005) Geographically weighted Poisson regression for disease association mapping. Statist. in Med., 24, 2695–717

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Oden N (1995) Adjusting Moran's I for population density. Statistics in Medicine, 14, 17-26

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Phillips C V, Goodman K J (2004) The missed lessons of Sir Austin Bradford Hill. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations, 1(3). Available from:

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